The national economy is a system of social reproduction that has historically developed within certain territorial boundaries.
The material basis of the national economy is the totality of the productive forces united in the industry. Thus, the category of “national economy” is revealed through such categories as “productive forces”, “industries”, “intersectoral complexes”.
Productive forces are a set of subjective and objective factors of production. The subjective factors of production include the working people – the economically active population – as the main element of the productive forces.
Objective factors of production include the means of production, land (natural conditions and resources), as well as scientific and technical knowledge embodied in technology.
Industries are qualitatively homogeneous groups of economic units, characterized by special production conditions, homogeneous products and production technology.
The formation of industries occurs as a result of the social division of labor, which is divided into general, particular and individual.
The general division of labor is the differentiation of social production into large spheres – the sphere of material production (and production services) and the non-production sphere (the sphere of non-production services).
The sphere of material production in the first level of sectoral division includes the so-called branches of the national economy: industry, construction, agriculture, forestry, transport, communications, the sphere of circulation (trade, material and technical support, procurement).
The non-productive sphere includes housing and communal services, health care, education, etc.
The private division of labor involves the differentiation of production in large spheres (branches of the national economy) on the following grounds:
purpose of products; commonality of technological processes; homogeneity of processed raw materials.
Thus, in the sectoral nomenclature of intersectoral balances, 11 complex industries are distinguished as part of industry: the fuel industry, the electric power industry and thermal power engineering, the oil industry, ferrous metallurgy, non-ferrous metallurgy, chemical and petrochemical industries; mechanical engineering and metalworking, forestry, woodworking and pulp and paper industry, building materials industry, light industry, food industry.
For example, the food industry unites enterprises on the basis of the purpose of products. The chemical industry unites enterprises on the basis of the commonality of the process of processing raw materials.
As part of complex industries, specialized industries are distinguished. For example, the food industry has 24 specialized industries (confectionery, flour and cereals, meat, dairy, etc.). The latter industries are divided into sub-sectors and production.
A single division of labor involves the distribution of production into separate enterprises.
A characteristic feature of the Belarusian economy is the deepening of the interconnection and interdependence of the development of industries and industries, the development of integration intersectoral processes. Therefore, there is a need for a coordinated solution to many national and territorial problems. This contributes to the isolation of intersectoral complexes.
The intersectoral complex (MC) is a system of production and enterprises in different industries, united by one program and development goal.
The economic meaning of the allocation of intersectoral complexes is due to the need to create organizational capabilities for solving national economic problems and developing targeted programs for socio-economic development.
The territorial (geographical) meaning of the allocation of intersectoral complexes is due to the need to create opportunities for connections between the elements of the economic system in space. In the MC, there are, in particular, the following types of connections:
the use of the same or interchangeable resources; by the sequence of stages of the technological process; to meet the same or interchangeable needs; on the use of infrastructure.
As part of the national economy of Belarus, the following intersectoral complexes are distinguished:
fuel and energy; mechanical engineering; timber industry; chemical; agro-industrial; social (production of consumer goods and services); construction and industrial; transport.