Program-target method

The program-target method acts as the most important method of solving complex problems, usually of an interdepartmental nature. It involves doing the following:

target analysis (goal decomposition);

building a hierarchy of goals and identifying their interrelations and mutual influence;

development and implementation of a program that ensures the achievement of goals.

Goal decomposition is the process of sub-goal partitioning, a process for complex problems that usually requires sub-goaling into several levels. Typical sub-goals are most often the tasks of meeting the needs of the persons for whose sake the program is being developed; the tasks of improving the structure; the tasks of creating the potential for future development; the fulfillment of external requirements, i.e. the requirements of the system in which the object for which the program is being developed is an integral part. A sign of the completion of the decomposition of goals is the appearance at the next level of the hierarchy as sub-goals of options for solving the problem.

The system of goals and sub-goals obtained at the decomposition stage is carefully analyzed to identify the relationships between the goals, determine the degree of priority of each sub-goal according to the criterion of contribution to the achievement of the goal of the highest level.

Based on the resulting hierarchy of goals, a program is developed. To do this, the required limits of resources necessary to achieve the goal are determined, the executors of the program are determined, the tasks and activities necessary for the implementation of sub-goals are developed, deadlines for implementation are outlined, the final calculation of the main indicators of the program and its resource support is carried out. Next, program documents are approved and an interim body is created for interdepartmental problems to direct the implementation of the program. The governing body includes representatives of all the main implementers of the program, it is given the resources intended for the implementation of the program and the necessary authority. The work of the governing body of the program is considered to be completed after the implementation of the program and the mandatory analysis of the results of its implementation.

A classic example of the use of the program-target method to solve national problems is the GOELRO plan. According to the original plan and execution, it was a comprehensive program for the transformation of the material and technical base of society through industrialization through the creation of a network of power plants.

In the context of the formation of market relations, the program-target method is constantly used to solve the most important problems at all levels of the management hierarchy.