Instruments of foreign trade policy

Trade policy methods are divided into tariff and non-tariff. A customs tariff is a set of customs duty rates applied to goods crossing the border of a state. Customs duties – a) taxes levied by the state on goods at the time they cross borders for protectionist or fiscal purposes; b) the levy levied on […]

Characteristics of macroeconomic indicators according to the system of national accounts

In economic theory and statistics of foreign countries, macroeconomic indicators calculated on the basis of the system of national accounts are used to characterize the final results of annual production: gross national product (GNP), gross domestic product (GDP), national income (ND), net national product (NPV), etc. In the national statistics of some countries (USA, Japan), […]

Features of measuring the national product according to Marxist methodology

Various macroeconomic indicators are used in the theory and economic practice to measure the results of the functioning of the national economy. A number of such indicators are designed to estimate the value of the total volume of national production. These include: total social product (SOP), gross social product (GP), final social product (CPC), net […]