Japan is one of the economic leaders of the modern world. In the production of industrial goods (cars, ships, video recorders, industrial robots, etc.), the country occupies a leading position in the world. Japan’s share of the world’s gross domestic product (GDP)  was 7.4% ($4841.6 billion) in 2000. The average annual GDP growth rate in […]


The United States ranks first in the world in terms of foreign trade in goods and services. The volume of exports  of goods from the United States in 2000 amounted to 781.1 billion dollars, imports – 1257.6 billion dollars. In  2000, the United States accounted for 12.3% of world merchandise exports and 18.9% of world […]

Calculation of marginal total costs from real source data

The real calculation will be carried out on the basis of the intersectoral balance for the Republic of Belarus for 1996 in the system of national accounts, Table. 6.11., 6.12., 6.13., 6.14., 6.15. On the basis of the procedure set forth for a conditional example, we calculate the matrices of coefficients of full salary intensity […]

The need to regulate international economic relations at the interstate level

Multilateral regulation of world trade at the interstate level has an increasingly noticeable impact on the conditions for the implementation of trade, economic, production and technical ties between countries, on their volume and structure. Multilateral regulation is an integral part of the world trade machinery. It acts as a means of facilitating the exchange of […]

Structure of the national economy and its types

The word structure (Latin structura) means structure, location, order. The structure of the national economy is a stable quantitative and qualitative relationship between its various components. Since the national economy is a complex organism, several types of structures can be distinguished in it. The reproductive structure of the national economy is determined by the fact […]