Double entry principle, errors and omissions

The fundamental method for compiling the balance of payments is the double recording of foreign trade transactions, which is based on the fact that each registered transaction corresponds to a payment in one form or another, and the balance of payments and receipts should converge. The double accounting system used in the preparation of the […]

Economic and mathematical models "National income - effective demand"

Determination of national income The UN is making great efforts to encourage all countries to collect data on national income. What is national income? This is a general concept that covers the entire annual flow of goods and services in the economy, calculated in monetary terms. Often, instead of this category, we use the almost […]


Among the branches of intangible production, a special place is occupied by trade, the provision of financial and banking services. There is a process of softization of the economy, that is, an increase in the role of intangible resources: information, tourism and communication. The provision of business services related to production services: consulting, engineering, marketing […]