Portfolio investment

Like direct investments, portfolio investments are a form of international capital flows, which is reflected in the balance of payments. Portfolio investment is a group of balance of payments items showing the relationship between residents and non-residents in connection with the sale of financial instruments that do not give the right to control the object […]

Diversification of production

Diversification of economic activity is the expansion of the activity of large firms, associations, enterprises and entire industries beyond the core business, which is understood as the production of goods and services that have the maximum share in net sales compared to other types of products. Diversification – in a broad sense – a strategic […]

Characteristics of macroeconomic indicators according to the system of national accounts

In economic theory and statistics of foreign countries, macroeconomic indicators calculated on the basis of the system of national accounts are used to characterize the final results of annual production: gross national product (GNP), gross domestic product (GDP), national income (ND), net national product (NPV), etc. In the national statistics of some countries (USA, Japan), […]

Features of measuring the national product according to Marxist methodology

Various macroeconomic indicators are used in the theory and economic practice to measure the results of the functioning of the national economy. A number of such indicators are designed to estimate the value of the total volume of national production. These include: total social product (SOP), gross social product (GP), final social product (CPC), net […]

Types of currency markets (FOREX)

Depending on the volume, nature of foreign exchange transactions and the set of currencies used, these markets are divided into world, regional, national (local). In the world currency markets (London, Singapore, Paris, Tokyo, etc.), transactions are carried out with currencies that are widely used in international payment circulation, In regional and local foreign exchange markets, […]