National income (in the narrow sense of the word)

Mention should be made of the narrow notion of national income used by U.S. economists. In a narrower sense, national income is calculated as  NNP minus all indirect taxes (excise taxes, taxes on cigarettes, gasoline and all other sales taxes). However, it should be borne in mind that all personal direct taxes, as well as […]


One of the most important forms of foreign economic relations for the UK is the export of capital. In terms of direct foreign investment, the country ranks third after the United States and Japan. Profits from the export of capital are twice as high as commodity exports. The geography of capital exports has changed significantly. […]

Focused (niche) strategies

Unlike differentiation and cost leadership strategies, focused strategies focus on a narrow market segment. The target segment, or niche, is determined by the geographical location or special requirements for the use of the product or its characteristics imposed by this market segment. The goal of a focused strategy is to meet the needs of the […]