Concept, types of production costs and production costs

A necessary condition for ensuring the production and economic activities of the enterprise is the use of economic resources, including fixed and working capital, industrial and production personnel. The costs of acquiring resources, expressed in monetary form, are called production costs. A distinction is made between one-time and ongoing costs. One-time costs in the enterprise […]

Information support of forecasting and planning processes

The most important prerequisite for obtaining a reliable and high-quality planning and forecast document is the availability of an appropriate information base. The information base is understood as a set of information, data, facts, knowledge regarding the object under study. It reflects the state and determines the directions of its change and development. The most […]

Inflation: essence, causes, types and consequences

The term inflation (from the Latin inflatio – swelling) was first used in North America during the Civil War (1861-1865) and denoted the process of swelling of the paper and money supply. Inflation is a multifactorial phenomenon that manifests itself in the overflow of the sphere of circulation with paper money in excess of the […]

Free competition in the theory of A. Smith

Adam Smith in his book “Studies on the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations” (1776), in contrast to the mercantilists, advocated freedom of competition within the country and in the world market, sharing the principle of “laisser-faire” put forward by the French economic school of physiocrats – non-interference of the state in the […]

The theory of fixed parities and rates

The founders of this theory were J. Robinson, J. Bikerdaik, A. Brown, F. Graham. They proposed a exchange rate regime based on fixed parities, allowing their change only with a fundamental balance of payments. In their research, they used economic and mathematical models, concluding that, that exchange rate changes are a low-efficient means of regulating […]