Features of measuring the national product according to Marxist methodology

Various macroeconomic indicators are used in the theory and economic practice to measure the results of the functioning of the national economy. A number of such indicators are designed to estimate the value of the total volume of national production. These include: total social product (SOP), gross social product (GP), final social product (CPC), net social product (CSP), net national product (NPV), gross national product (GNP), gross domestic product (GDP), national income (ND), personal income (LD), intermediate product (PP) and others.

The first three indicators have long been the main ones in assessing the results of annual production in our country. Given the fact that these macroeconomic indicators are sometimes found in the scientific and educational literature, we briefly note the main methodological provisions of their calculation. The methodology for their calculation is based on the Marxist doctrine of the division of social production into material and immaterial and the corresponding division of social labor (as the only source). creation of the value of the manufactured product) for productive and non-productive. Only labor spent in the sphere of material production is considered productive, the concept of which is associated with the creation of products that have a natural-material form, and bringing it to the final consumers.

Therefore, the statistically aggregate social product is calculated as the sum of all material goods produced per year created in all branches of material production (industry, agriculture and forestry, construction, freight transport, communications serving production, public catering industries and a number of others), that is, the very fact of creating a product, regardless of whether this product was sold or not, is evaluated.

The natural and cost form of THE SOP is distinguished. In its natural form, SOPs are means of production and commodities. By value, it is divided into two parts: the value of the means of production transferred to the finished product (depreciation deductions and the value of raw materials and materials used in production) and the newly created value or national income. The value structure of the SOP can be shown by the following expression:

SOP = SP + ND,

where JV is the transferred value of the means of production;

ND – national income.

The SOP comes in the form of gross social product and final product.

Gross social product (GP) is the sum of material goods produced per year by enterprises of material production and entering through economic turnover into production and non-production consumption. Since the GP consists of the products of individual enterprises interconnected by a division of labor, it inevitably includes a second account. The same products, such as raw materials, billets, component parts and assemblies, etc., are transferred to other enterprises for the production of their products. Therefore, its cost is repeatedly taken into account in the cost of GP. This part of the GP, which is spent during the year on current material costs: raw materials, fuel, energy, purchased components and components, semi-finished products is called an intermediate product (PP). To obtain a reliable value of the national product, it is necessary to get rid of the re-account, i.e. to calculate all the material costs in production only once.

In order to exclude re-counting, the indicator of the final social product (CPC), calculated as the difference between the gross and intermediate product, is used. With the help of this indicator, the cost of cash for the production of consumer goods and investment goods is estimated.

According to its material and material composition, the CPC consists of consumer goods and investment products, including, firstly, the means of labor created during the year, directed both to compensate for the departures and to increase them; secondly, the increase in stocks of labor items and products in the warehouses of enterprises. In the value structure of the CPC, two main elements are distinguished – depreciation deductions (A) and the monetary equivalent of the produced private security company, which, according to the Marxist understanding of labor, is interpreted as newly created value, that is, national income (ND).

National income has two forms: in kind and value. In kind, national income represents commodities to meet the personal needs of the population, and the means of production used to expand production. In the form of value, national income acts as the sum of the necessary and surplus product. The necessary product exists in the form of payment for labor, as well as payments and benefits from public consumption funds. The surplus product is intended for the expansion of production, i.e. the purchase of means of production and the hiring of additional labor, for the maintenance of the non-production sphere, the creation of insurance reserves and stocks, etc.

As part of the ND at the stage of its use, such elements as the consumption fund (FP), the accumulation fund (FN) and net exports (PE – the difference between exports and imports), rice are distinguished. 3.1.

Thus, the relationship between different macroeconomic indicators can be presented in the following form:

GP – PP = CPC;

COP – A = CHOP = ND = FN + FP + CHE.

It should be noted that in the context of the formation of market relations in the Republic of Belarus, as in other CIS countries, a radical restructuring of statistics and accounting of the national product and a transition to international standards for assessing the main macroeconomic indicators were required. The System of National Accounts, which is implemented in Belarus, is based on the concept of the 1993 SNA, and therefore GDP has become the main macroeconomic indicator.