Sources of statistics of the balance of payments of the Republic of Belarus

According to the instructions of the Government of the Republic of Belarus, the reporting balance of payments is compiled by the National Bank on the basis of data on the trade balance and other foreign trade flows (services, humanitarian aid, direct investment in commodity form, etc.) formed by the Ministry of Statistics together with the […]


Japan is one of the economic leaders of the modern world. In the production of industrial goods (cars, ships, video recorders, industrial robots, etc.), the country occupies a leading position in the world. Japan’s share of the world’s gross domestic product (GDP)  was 7.4% ($4841.6 billion) in 2000. The average annual GDP growth rate in […]


The United States ranks first in the world in terms of foreign trade in goods and services. The volume of exports  of goods from the United States in 2000 amounted to 781.1 billion dollars, imports – 1257.6 billion dollars. In  2000, the United States accounted for 12.3% of world merchandise exports and 18.9% of world […]

Representatives of the neoclassical school

Following A. Smith and K. Marx, the mechanisms of market competition were considered by representatives of the neoclassical school. Unlike their predecessors, they argued that the value of goods is created not in the process of production, but in the market, where individual estimates of the value of goods by individual sellers and individual buyers […]

The essence of the basic terms of delivery, the purpose and objectives INCOTERMS

A foreign trade contract of sale, as a rule, involves the movement of goods over a fairly significant distance. When concluding this contract, therefore, it is always necessary to carefully regulate the issues of delivery of goods from the seller to the buyer, its loading, insurance, etc. In the practice of international trade, a number […]