Profitability indicators and methods of their calculation

The total amount of profit received by the enterprise cannot fully characterize the efficiency of its production and economic activity, since its value is determined by the size of the enterprise. Therefore, there is a need for a relative characteristic of the profitability (profitability) of the enterprise in the form of a measurement of the […]


Italy has the largest public sector of all developed countries. Until now, up to 50% of the economy and 70% of the country’s banking system has been under state control. Italy has one of the highest indicators of GDP production by the public sector among developed countries and the share of state-owned enterprises in the […]

General forecasting scheme using a regression dependency

In practice, not only the values of the predicted value for objects similar to the object of forecasting or this value itself in the past are most often known, but also other values that affect the predicted value or change together with it. In this case, they say that there is a connection between these […]

The concept of the foreign exchange market. Main types of currency markets

The international exchange of goods, services and capital requires the implementation of appropriate calculations, the implementation of which requires the exchange of one currency for another. As a result, importers, exporters, investors, trade intermediaries, other businessmen, tourists are forced to convert both national and foreign currency for the final settlement of foreign trade relations. Currency […]

Scheme of the "competitive diamond" by M. Porter

The country will receive super-profits, or “technological rents”, until other countries copy its innovations. Posner’s model suggests that once an innovation has been copied, there is no point in trading it on the foreign market. In order to constantly trade in any product, it is necessary to ensure a “flow of innovations” in its production. […]