Double entry principle, errors and omissions

The fundamental method for compiling the balance of payments is the double recording of foreign trade transactions, which is based on the fact that each registered transaction corresponds to a payment in one form or another, and the balance of payments and receipts should converge. The double accounting system used in the preparation of the […]

International investment balance

The balance of payments, as indicated above, reflects the flow of real and financial resources between residents and non-residents. These flows accumulate and form reserves. Stocks arising from the international movement of financial resources are recorded in the balance sheet of international investments. The balance of international investment (international investment balance) is a balance of […]

Classification principles

Since the balance of payments is a statistical summary of a country’s transactions with the outside world, each transaction must belong to a particular section in accordance with certain classification principles. The definition of standard balance-of-payments components is based on the following main considerations: the allocated balance of payments component should differ in behavioural patterns […]

Models of private economic equilibrium. Spider web market model

Spider-like model of market price dynamics. Assumptions and main components of the model All the theoretical constructions presented in this work are based on the assumption that the perfect nature of competition is that all households and enterprises act in accordance with market prices. In other words, we are talking about a parametric pricing system. […]